Cultivation and Management of Tulip Ball at 5°C

5°C tulip ball needs enough time to complete

The development of each stage, as well as the length of processing time required for each species, is not the same, so each species has an earliest and latest planting time. During this time, growers can according to the actual situation and their own on the market It is expected to choose the most suitable planting time.

Preparation before planting

When the arrival of the ball is received, it should be planted immediately. If the soil temperature is higher than 16 °C, it can be stored for a maximum of 1 to 2 weeks. The bulbs were stored in a cold room at a temperature of 2°C to 5°C, a relative humidity of 70%, and a certain amount of air flow (0.1m3 balls per hour of air flow of 0.5m3). If the ventilation is not good, a slight dampness can lead to the spread of penicillium.

Wherever possible, the planting area should be cultivated in a standard tulip plastic box or a lily plastic box. If the box planting conditions are not available, tulip cultivation must be carried out with sorghum to reduce the possibility of soil pathogens infecting tulip roots.

Cultivation medium In order to facilitate the rooting of the tulip and ensure that the plant has a good root system, the pH of the cultivation medium should be 6-7, the EC value should be less than 1.5mS/cm, loose and aseptic, and the drainage performance should be good. Adding peat can lower the pH of the soil and increase the porosity of the soil. Soils with high EC values ​​must be washed with salt for 2 months in advance.

Before preparing the planting base 7 days before planting, the medium used for planting tulips should be poured once. After watering, cover the entire greenhouse with 2-story shading nets (southern) or straw (north), while keeping the greenhouses ventilated and lowering the temperature inside the greenhouse.

Cultivation management

Ball Disinfection If the temperature of the soil is higher than 14°C when planting tulips, it is recommended to sterilize the bulbs. Prior to disinfection, the brown cuticle around the bulbs should be stripped. The specific disinfection method is to immerse the bulb in 0.2% carbendazim + 0.1% carbendazim solution for 15 minutes.

Planting method After removing the outer epidermis of the bulb, the bulb is planted on the surface of loose soil with 30-40 cm in the surface. When planting, ensure that the bulb covers 1 to 2 cm above the soil. Generally, 200 bulbs can be planted per square meter. Water once after planting.

The rooting period conservation period is about 3 weeks after the tulip planting. During the rooting period, the soil temperature at the root plate of the tulip bulb is guaranteed to be 9°C to 12°C. The temperature of the soil can be reduced by heavy shading and pouring cold water, and extreme temperature changes can be avoided as much as possible. Tulips do not require light during the rooting period. The greenhouse can be covered with a 2-story shade net or a straw screen, while the greenhouse is ventilated. During the rooting period, the water is not watered unless the medium is very dry, with a small amount of local recharge.

After the rooting period of warming, the plants begin to see light, and shades such as shade nets need to be removed, and the temperature of the greenhouse is maintained at 15° C. to 17° C. until flowering. At this time, many places have entered the winter, in order to ensure that the temperature needs to be warmed up, especially at night. Don't use a stuffy way to keep warm, so the humidity in the greenhouse is too high, which can easily lead to a series of physiological diseases and gray mold. When warming up, do not let the exhaust gas and smoke enter the greenhouse, otherwise it may cause all the tulips of the whole greenhouse to die.

The water management bulbs are properly watered after planting to provide sufficient water for plant growth. After the watering, pay attention to ventilation, and do not allow the plants to stay in a wet state to avoid infection with Botrytis.

The relative humidity is controlled between 60% and 80%, and is often tested. It is best to place a hygrometer on the top of the plant. If the relative humidity is too low, the development of the plant will be delayed. If the relative humidity is too high, the occurrence of lodging, gray mold, plant bending, and blind flowers will increase. Relative humidity is too high to be reduced by ventilation. If conditions permit, it can be performed simultaneously with slight heating.

Fertilizing Usually tulip does not need to be fertilized, if necessary, consider applying some nitrogen fertilizer. After the bulbs are rooted, apply 2 kg of calcium nitrate per 100 m2 in 3 separate applications. Each fertilization takes one week. The calcium ions in calcium nitrate can also prevent the tulip from tripping.

When the tulip grows to a height of 5 to 10 cm in the greenhouse, its growth should be checked frequently and the bulbs infected with Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium sp. should be handled as soon as possible. All bulbs that did not sprout or grow very slowly were dug out because these bulbs may be infected with B. cinerea and Fusarium. The ethylene gas released by the Fusarium-infected bulbs will damage the surrounding healthy plants.

The following problems may occur during planting:

(1) During the rooting period, despite the use of 2-story shading nets to cover the entire greenhouse, the temperature of the air and medium in the greenhouse may still be too high, even exceeding 20°C (especially in the south), resulting in poor plant rooting and serious late stages. Blind flowers or dwarf plants and other phenomena.

(2) After the rooting period, many greenhouses do not have warming conditions. The air temperature in the greenhouse will be lower than 15°C, and even lower than 10°C at night. Under such circumstances for a long time, the plants may not bloom on time and the flowering period may be delayed. .

(3) Under all the above-mentioned planting conditions, only about 85% of the finished product rate can still be guaranteed, and it is quite normal for the remaining bulbs to have various problems. According to international standards, the flowering rate of the tulip bulbs should be 85% when the tulip growing conditions are satisfied.

Harvesting and storage of cut flowers

The buds can be harvested after transmitting the color, and the flower buds have not yet been unfolded, which is conducive to storage and transportation. Usually the whole ball is harvested. After the cut flowers are harvested, they are bundled into bundles and placed in clean water at 2°C to 5°C for 30 to 60 minutes. Before shipment, the cut flowers shall be placed vertically in the storage room to prevent the growth and bending of the flower stems; the relative humidity shall be ensured so as to prevent the plants from drying out; and certain ventilation measures shall be taken to ensure the plants are dry and avoid infection by gray mold. The storage time should not exceed 1 to 2 days. The storage time is long, and the cut flowers are more likely to be damaged by ethylene and gray mold due to lack of drying and nutrition. If it must be stored for a long time, it should be stored with balls.

Diseases and pests

Penicillium is caused by Penicillium. The germs infect the mechanically damaged bulbs and may also infect those bulbs whose epidermis is still white, harvested earlier, and stored in cold and humid environments. At this time, the epidermis of the bulb will have a blue-green hyphae attached, but the internal scales will not be affected. Occasionally, the bacteria will also appear on plants that have fallen leaf symptoms.

Preventive measures: Avoid damaging the bulbs and shoots; after the bulbs arrive, store them in a well-ventilated and low-relative storage room; disinfect the bulbs before planting as recommended.

Soft rot is caused by Pythium. The fungus begins to infect the bulbs at soil temperatures above 12°C in the first few weeks after planting. Early infected plants only gave very short shoots, the bulbs became soft, usually pink, and gave off a special, unpleasant odor similar to that of a Fusarium-infected bulb. Stems and roots appear to be healthy at the beginning, but they will all decay later. Late infected plants have poor growth, yellow tips and lodging, and in certain circumstances, flower buds will also dry out in the final stages.

Preventive measures: Before planting, the epidermis of the bulbs should be removed from the root plate and the bulbs should be disinfected; in the rooting stage, the soil temperature should be lower than 12°C, preferably lower than 10°C; the soil structure must be better, and the drainage should be unobstructed.

Fusarium wilt is caused by Fusarium oxysporum. Infested bulbs appear to have small spots of grayish brown on occasion of storage, sometimes with concentric circles or distinct yellow edges. The bulbs withered and the epidermis loosened, releasing a special unpleasant smell and ethylene gas. When the infection is not severe, the plants grow slowly and the tip of the calyx turns yellow and dries. The vertical cutting of the plants revealed that the stem turned brown from the base. The blight-infected tulip bulbs release ethylene gas into the soil, causing slow growth of other surrounding plants, and even dried up calyx. In the cultivation of 5 °C tulip bulbs, especially early planting, planting temperature above 13 °C, the chance of infection of the pathogen is higher.

Preventive measures: Provide sufficient ventilation during storage; remove infected bulbs and sterilize bulbs before planting; soil temperature should be 12°C or lower when bulbs are planted at 5°C; timely excavate germinated species after planting ball.

Botrytis is caused by Botrytis tulipifera. Both bulbs and roots can be infected. After inoculation of the bulb, one or more layers of the bulbs are partially or completely soft and dark brown, and there are 2 to 3 mm large black flat sclerotia on the infected tissue. After the infection above the ground, the plants are fragile and will suddenly snap; the flowers of the calyx are darker than the normal plants; the leaves lose luster due to the destruction of the waxy layer, and there are fold-like blisters; the plants with serious infections grow very short or Flowers will not be open. When soil is grown in greenhouses, the addition of organic fertilizer to the soil is more likely to cause gray mold. Spots produced by Botrytis cinerea are smaller and occur only on the leaves and do not occur on the calyx.

Precautionary measures: Disinfect the bulbs before planting; Do not grow in pure peat matrix; When the box is planted, prevent root dryness from being damaged by raising the relative humidity to 90% to 95%.

Brown spot is caused by Botrytis cinerea. Plants that are severely infected do not flower or grow stagnant. The lowermost leaf of the stem curls and a large number of gray-brown fungal spores grow on it. The lower part of the surface will produce black sclerotia of 1 to 2 mm in size. Germination of pathogenic spores causes small, water-soaked spots on leaves and flowers. These spots are initially green and later become large white or brown spots.

Sclerotia and spores of germs germinate only under moist conditions. Spores can be transmitted through the flow of moisture or air, forming "burn" spots within 24 hours of the leaves and within 10 hours of the flowers.

Preventive measures: Before planting, sterilize the greenhouse and the soil; sterilize the bulbs before planting, and do not plant too densely; remove germinated bulbs in time; use fungicides for prevention; preferably water in the morning; keep the plants dry This is especially true at night; to prevent the accumulation of water, the relative humidity should be between 85% and 90%, keeping the air flowing.

Blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Infected tulip buds in the soil, the plants will not be further victimized after growing out of the ground. An orange-brown spot and streaks are formed on the buds, after which the tissue of the plant is dehiscent and normally flowers normally, but the tip of the bottom leaf curls outwards. Plants with severe infections are ellipsoidal at the base of the stem, and are heavily invaginated. The plants grow slowly and are easily broken during processing.

Preventive measures: Before planting, sterilize the greenhouse and the soil; sterilize the bulbs before planting, and do not grow too deep.

Physiological hazards

Blind flowering of some or all flower buds. The symptoms first manifest at the tip of the stamens and sepals and then extend to the base of the flower. The usual symptoms are: dry flower buds, green petals, white tips, stamens and pistil withered, water can not fully open at the dealer. Blind flowers usually occur in the later stages of greenhouse cultivation.

There are many factors that affect the occurrence of blind flowers, such as: variety characteristics, seed size is too small, intermediate temperature treatment is too short, cold treatment time is too short, long-term storage and transport, storage and greenhouse growth period of ethylene hazards, relative in the greenhouse High humidity, lack of water, root suffocation, diseases, etc. may cause blind flowers. It should be noted that, for blind flowers caused by bulbs, the length of the flower buds will not exceed 2 mm, and some or all of the flowers will be green and the stamens will die.

Preventive measures: Eliminate the influence of the above factors; Control the ethylene concentration to not exceed 0.1ppm; Remove the bulbs infected by Fusarium in time; Good ventilation; Store the bulbs away from flowers, vegetables and fruits; Avoid soot.

Insufficient calcium deficiencies lead to vitrification and tripping of stems during the growth stage. The upper part of the fallen plant stem was dark green, immersed in water, the tissue was curled, and the stem and flower were drooping. The sagging part of the stem maintains its connection with the plant, and the broken part shows symptoms of boron deficiency.

The tumbling of the leaves showed black water-soaked spots appearing on the second or third leaves. These spots secreted drops of water. Severe water-like substances can be seen under the epidermis, which are located on the diagonal lines of the leaves. Another symptom is the graying of the middle leaves.

The fall is due to the high relative humidity in the greenhouse and the poor root development of the plant, which leads to reduced water transport in the plant and to the rapid growth of the plant due to calcium deficiency. Cracking of the leaves cannot be avoided by maintaining a relatively low relative humidity, which is mainly related to poor root development or moldy emptying of bulbs. Its sensitivity is related to the variety.

Preventive measures: Under various temperature conditions in the greenhouse, avoid relative humidity greater than 80%; timely seeding, avoid cold treatment too long; ensure normal root system; avoid excessive plant growth; ensure good air flow between plants and promote evaporation. A heating tube or a fan capable of blowing in the horizontal direction can be used about 40 cm above the plant; the flowers on the bulb with the symptoms of lodging can be harvested and placed in a 1% calcium nitrate solution.

Salinity damage Salt damage occurs in soils with very high salinity (EC values ​​greater than 2) or acidic (pH values ​​less than 4). It may also be caused by improper use of fertilizers or disinfectant drugs. The roots of the affected plants grew very short and bent, the color usually turned light brown, and the apex was dark brown, sometimes thickened and easily broken.

Precautions include: pre-adjusting the media's EC and pH to the proper range. The pH can be too low and can be neutralized with lime; do not use excessive fertilizers, such as preventing the hollow stems of calcium nitrate; disinfect according to the recommended amount .

Ethylene Injury Ethylene is a hormone that affects plant respiration and tissue formation and causes damage at temperatures above 13°C and ethylene concentrations greater than 0.1 ppm. In the different growth stages of the plant, it will lead to poor root development, plant dwarfism, slender plants, bud necrosis, and flower bud abortion.

Insect-infected bulbs release ethylene gas. Mature fruits, vegetables, flowers, and incomplete combustion of oil, gas, coal, or other fuels also release ethylene gas.

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