Mai yak

Mai yak is a local good breed of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau yak. ​​It is mainly produced in the Wakao, Maiji and Zoige districts of Hongyuan County, Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in our province. Yak.

First, appearance characteristics

Mai yak head is moderately large, most have horns, the amount is wide flat, the front hair curls, the elderly cover their eyes. The male yak horns are thick, extending to the sides and upwards, with the corners slightly bent backwards and inwards; the appearance is rough and majestic, the neck is short, and the armor is high and plump. Female yak horns are smaller, shorter, sharper, and have different horns; necks are thinner and armor is lower and thinner. The chest is developed, the chest is deep, the ribs are open, the back is straight, the abdomen does not sag, and the chin is narrow and slightly oblique. The body is longer and the limbs are shorter. The hoof is small and the hoof is solid. Pronotum, body side and tail growth hair, tail hair like. Black hair was the main body, followed by white with black (16.8%), cyan (8.1%), brown (5.2%) and black and white (4.2%), and a few brown and leucorrhea individuals ( 1.1%), rarely seen in pure white (0.4%). The primary weight of wheat yak is smaller, 13.10.4 kg for males and 11.60.5 kg for mothers.

Second, production performance

1. Milk production performance: Mai yak cows start milk 10 to 15 days after delivery, and squeeze once a day, milking about 5 months each year (from June to October). In the peak season of lactation (July), the daily milk volume was 1.80.07 kg. 4 year old mother calves 149 milk 230 kilograms. The milk is thick, sweet, with a specific gravity of 1.036 and a dry matter content of 17.9%; 7.22% of milk fat, 5.04% of lactose, 4.91% of milk protein, and 0.77% of ash. Adult female yak in the whole lactation period (about 180 days) had a milk yield of 365 kg and a milk fat percentage of 6.0% to 7.5%, with an average of about 6.8%. The relationship between lactation peak and lactation month of female yak is not obvious, and it is closely related to the growth of pasture. From July to August, the luxuriant pasture is the peak period of yak lactation.

2. Meat production performance: under the conditions of feeding for the whole year without any supplementary feeding, the adult yak weighs about 426 kilograms, the slaughter rate is 55.2%, and the net meat rate is 42.8%. The 14-year-old male yak grazing grassland after 150 days of grazing, the entire period of weight gain 62.5 kg, 17 months of age weighing 129.82.9 kg, an average daily gain of 41716.3 grams. Each kilogram of body weight gains an average of 25 kilograms of pasture. Three of them were randomly selected for slaughter, the slaughter rate was 41.1%, the net meat rate was 30.8%, the ratio of bone to flesh was 1:2.97, the area of ​​the eye muscles was 31.7 square centimeters, and high quality cuts accounted for 55.4% of the net flesh weight. 9-11 muscle analysis of ribs, including protein 21.4%, fat 2.6%, ash 1.1%.

3, the performance of the service: Mai yak good luck and walking marsh. Long-distance transport of 100 kilograms, travel 30 kilometers a day, can walk for 7 to 10 days. Short-distance 150-200 kilograms, day trip 30 kilometers.驮 75 kilograms (equivalent to 18.4% of body weight), walking for 30 kilometers, it took 6.2 hours. After 50 minutes, the physiological condition returned to normal. It has been determined that the maximum force of the yak yak is 390 kilograms, which is equivalent to 95.6% of the weight; it is used for arable land, and the “two cows can carry rakes” can cultivate 5 acres of land one day.

4. Hair production performance: The wheat yak is cut once a year at the beginning of June each year. In some areas, there are shearers after fleece. The amount of wool produced varies by individual, gender, and age. Adult male calves cut an average of 1.43 kilograms, while adult calves cut an average of 0.35 kilograms. The length of hair varies greatly depending on the site of birth. Adult male yak has 38 cm of shoulders, 47.5 cm of fur, 37 cm of skirt hair, 10.5 cm of back hair, and 60 cm of tail hair.

5. Reproductive performance: Late breeding of wheat yak. Most female calves started breeding at the age of 3, producing the first child at the age of 4; about 5% of the individuals were mated at the age of 2 and the first child was born at the age of 3, but the survival rate of calves was low. The male yaks are mostly 2 years old and have the ability to breed, but only 3 to 4 years old have been reserved for breeding purposes, and 5-8 years old have the strongest ability to breed. Female yak is seasonal estrus. It is the estrus season from May to November every year, and the peak season is from July to August. The symptoms of estrus are not obvious, and in large group management, public yaks are often used as a sign of heat. The average estrus cycle is 18.24.4 days. Estrus duration 12 to 16 hours. 2669 days of pregnancy. Mai yak usually two years three years, a few one year or two years of one child; one child is rarely seen in double plague, breeding survival rate was 43.7% (38.4% ~ 46.3%); abortion rate difference between regions It is generally around 6% (4% to 14%).

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